Cooperative Lerning As One Of The Best Learning Strategies

Posted under Learning And Self-Development on Tuesday 19 February 2013 at 3:37 am

Learning is one of the most important factor for self-development and self-improvement. However, in our times a lot of people do not give proper value to constant learning and developing own personality. Learning and gaining more knowledge is the best way to improve our self-confidence and open us a way to a better life quality. Despite common assumption, it is never late to learn new things, and in our times the importance of self-education or learning new things is hard to underestimate. Great learning abilities and eagerness to learn is a great way to achieve professional success, gain a great reputation at work, and guarantee

Cooperative LearningCooperative learning is an educational strategy, in which small groups of learners of different levels of abilities work together towards achieving some academic or professional goals and improving their knowledge of subject. As a rule, teachers and instructors, who use cooperative strategy, split their groups of learners into five-eight small teams, members of which are supposed to work together on various assignments or tasks, and help each other to learn, to advance and to receive better grades. As a rule, after working in the groups, learners are tested and graded individually.

Cooperative learning is an effective and popular strategy, because it motivates, stimulates and encourages employees to learn and to develop their social skills, gives opportunity to learn faster and more effective, provides feedback and interaction between teammates, improves psychological health and self-confidence of every individual in the class, etc. Educational approach of cooperative learning is one of the most thoroughly developed and best researched teaching concepts. The first studies on problems of cooperation and collaborating in education can be dated as ending of XIX century. First programs on collaborative education were practically used in Cincinnati in 1906, but it those times the efforts of teaching specialists were directed on assisting students in connecting their work and study.

In the last decades of the twentieth century the problems and the issues related to the approaches of cooperative learning have become a point of interest of many educational scientists and social theorists. Such specialists like Roger and David Johnsons from the University of Minnesota, Shlomo Sharan from Israel University, or Robert Slavin have studied the benefits and features of cooperative learning from different angles. All their works and experiments proved that strategy of cooperative learning can be successfully used to improve educational process in three main directions:

(1) increasing of productivity and assistance towards the attainments;

(2) creating supportive and friendly relations between the students, and

(3) improving psychological condition and self-recognition of the students.

Now the concept of cooperative learning is widely used by numerous educational establishments throughout the country. Some universities and colleges like LaGuardia Community College, Cincinnati Technical College, Kettering and Antioch Universities, base their educational programs only on the concept of cooperative learning. But mostly teachers and instructors use this strategy optionally or when educational process will obviously benefit from it. Fundamentally, cooperative learning is not just a simple grouping of students in the class; it is a complicated concept of educating, which requires a lot of professionalism and experience from teachers. Not every group will work and collaborate successfully, that is why teachers and instructors must stimulate cooperation and mutual assistance in every team. According to the theory of Johnson, Johnson and Holubec (created in published in 1993), there are five key components of making cooperative learning strategy work successfully for all learners.

(To learn more about the stages of cooperative learning strategy go to this article)

Significance Of Hawthorne Studies For Modern Organizational Development

Posted under Uncategorized on Monday 4 February 2013 at 11:51 pm

Read more about Hawthorne effect here.

Evhawthorne studiesery manager must consider his group or organization as a dynamic developing social structure, which must not be taken as just a working machine. Friendly climate among the group members, proper feedback, openness of the administrators and attention to every single individual of working group make the employees feel more comfortable at work and, as a result, respond with better productivity.

The Hawthorn Studies demonstrate that it is good not only to establish employee’s duties, obligations and responsibilities, but also to stimulate his self-recognition, individuality, importance and pride, to make him feel involved into the whole process of work, starting from setting up the standards and ending with calculation of financial reward. In order to receive a good response, an employer must challenge his employees and encourage them to put their heart into the work. Employees must feel satisfied with what they have produced and the reward they have received for good output.

Recently the results Hawthorne studies came under the wave of severe criticism. A group of modern theorists headed by Berkley Rice defeats the discovered  principles and calls it “Hawthorne Defect”.  These specialists claim that the Hawthorne experiments were not very correct and effective from scientific point of view due to mistakes in investigational schemes, lack of control teams, etc. They refer to contemporary experiments, which were carried out under more severe control and did not demonstrate results similar to outcomes of Hawthorne experiments. Other researchers also admit lack of purity of Hawthorne experiments. For example, the majority of volunteers from Hawthorne plant were young men, who worked at highly developed factory, had good education and high motivation. Besides, the conclusions, made about the importance of social factors for productivity, were made mostly based on the results of the experiments with young ladies, the employees of the plant. And the fact that women actually evaluate social issues much more, than men, is known.

But at the same time, there are numerous practical cases, which prove legitimacy and effectiveness of hawthorne effect. Medical experiment, which took place in 1978 in the Department of Neuro-augmentive Surgery at the Sister Kenny Institute in Minneapolis, is one of such examples. A group of adult patients suffering cerebral palsy entered the experiment on improving their motor dysfunction. All of the participants were treated with good powerful cerebellar neuro-stimulators together with extra care and attention from the side of researchers and medical personnel of the Institute. Shortly all the patients informed about considerable improvements of their motor function and expressed enormous satisfaction with the treatment course. But, surprisingly, following medical tests did not indicate any progress of motor function of any patient. So, in this case hawthorne effect worked perfectly and brought to psychological improvements of patients as a result of extra attention.

Summarizing all the above data, it is possible to identify hawthorne effect as a helping tool when measuring attitude or behavior of an individual (for example, an employee or a patient). The main idea of hawthorne effect is: when people are aware that they are being supervised, they change their behavior. Therefore, hawthorne effect proves that participants of an experimental group always try to optimize their behavior or output, knowing that they are being measured. Scientific meaning of hawthorne effect, can be expressed as the following: in order to receive true and accurate information during an experiment, the structure of such experiment must be designed in such a way, which guarantees elimination or minimization of outer influence from the side of conductors of this experiment. In case if such minimization can not be provided and guaranteed, a special “distortion” of the results must be taken into account when making conclusions.